Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Make Up Post

Posted: December 5, 2011 in Uncategorized

This Post will be talking about Psychological Disorders.

Psychological Disorders are harmful dysfunctions in which behavior is judged to be (1) atypical, (2) disturbing, (3) maladaptive, or (4) unjustifiable.  Atypical is not enough in itself.  Disturbing varies with time and culture.  Maladaptive is when someone is harmful and dysfunctional.  Lastly unjustifiable is when there’s a good reason sometime.

The historical perspective of this is caused by movements of sun or the moon and even evil spirits.  Ancient treatments for these disorders were exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or blood replaced with an animal’s blood. The medical model is the concept that these diseases have physical causes.  They believe that they can be diagnosed, treated, and sometimes cured.  They also assume that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital. The bio-psycho-social perspective is by the biological, social cultural and psychological f actors combine and interacting cause the psychological disorders. 

The DSM-IV is the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.  It is a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.  A Neurotic Disorder is usually distressing but allows someone to think rationally and function socially.  It is known as the nervous disorder.  A psychotic disorder is when a person loses contact with reality.  They experience irrational ideas/delusions and distorted perceptions/hallucinations.


In the Post Below, tells you about generalized anxiety disorders.  Now we will discuss a few more types of anxiety disorders.  A panic disorder is basically panic attacks that usually last no more than a few minutes.  During a panic attack the person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.  Another type of Anxiety is Obsessive Compulsive Disorders.  This is unwanted repetitive thought also known as obsessions and actions/compulsions occur.  This is thought to be caused by biological reasons. 

In Post Traumatic Stress Disorder someone has haunting memories, social withdrawal, nightmares, and insomnia.  It is usually referred to as PTSD.  There are 2 dysfunctional cognitions mediate development of PTSD – the world is completely dangerous and that the self is totally incompetent.  These are usually acquired if the person entered stress with extreme opposite view or if multiple stress occurrences continually prime the schema.  There are very efficient and valid test if you want to identify PTSD.

Mood Disorders are characterized by emotional extremes.  In a Major Depressive Disorder there is usually no apparent reason.  This depressing mood usually last about two or more weeks of feeling worthless and diminished.  In a manic episode you are hyperactive and in a wildly optimistic state.  Bipolar Disorder is when a person alternates between.  They usually seem hopeless and have depression.  Sometimes they can be in a overexcited state of mania which is formerly called the manic-depressive disorder. 

In mood disorders one component of the chemistry-cognition-moo circuit can alter others.  The cycle of depression is (1) stressful experiences, (2) Negative explanatory style, (3) depressed mood, and (4) cognitive and behavioral changes.  This cycle of depression can be broken at any point. 


Make Up Post

Posted: December 5, 2011 in Uncategorized

This week on my blog I will be talking about generalized anxiety disorders.

Generalized anxiety disorder is also known as GAD.  It is characterized by excessive, exaggerated anxiety and worry about everyday life events with no obvious reasons for worry. People with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder tend to always expect disaster and can’t stop worrying about health, money, family, work, or school. In people with Generalized anxiety disorder, the worry often is unrealistic or out of proportion for the situation. Daily life becomes a constant state of worry, fear, and dread. Eventually, the anxiety so dominates the person’s thinking that it interferes with daily functioning, including work, school, social activities, and relationships.

Generalized anxiety disorder affects the way a person thinks.  This type of anxiety can lead to physical symptoms, as well. Symptoms of Generalized anxiety disorder can be excessive, ongoing worry and tension, an unrealistic view of problems, restlessness or a feeling of being “edgy”, irritability, muscle tension, headaches, sweating, difficulty concentrating, nausea, the need to go to the bathroom frequently, tiredness, trouble falling or staying asleep, trembling, or being easily startled.  People with this disorder usually have other similar disorders such as panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and phobias.  They could suffer from depression, and/or abuse drugs or alcohol.

People that have Generalized anxiety disorder are usually referred to a psychiatrist or psychologist, mental health professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses like GAD. Treatment for GAD most often includes a combination of medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Drugs are also available to treat Generalized anxiety disorder and may be especially helpful for people whose anxiety is interfering with daily functioning. The medications most often used to treat Generalized anxiety disorder in the short-term are from a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. These medications are sometimes referred to as “tranquilizers,” because they leave you feeling calm and relaxed. They work by decreasing the physical symptoms of Generalized anxiety disorder, such as muscle tension and restlessness.

The causes of Generalized Anxiety Disorder aren’t known yet but it is believed that it can come from genetics, brain chemistry, and/or environmentalstresses. The tendency to develop GAD may be passed on in families.  The Generalized Anxiety Disorder is associated with abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. Neurotransmitters are special chemical messengers that help move information from nerve cell to nerve cell. If the neurotransmitters are out of balance, messages cannot get through the brain properly. This can alter the way the brain reacts in certain situations, leading to anxiety.  Trauma and stressful events, such as abuse, the death of a loved one, divorce, changing jobs or schools, may lead to GAD.  The use of or withdrawal from addictive substances such as alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine, can also worsen anxiety.

About 4 million adult Americans suffer from of Generalized Anxiety Disorder during the course of a year. It most often begins in childhood or adolescence, but can begin in adulthood. It is more common in women than in men.

POST #13

Posted: November 28, 2011 in Uncategorized

This week on my blog I will be continuing to talk about Personality.

To assess your unconscious you may do a test that is referred to as the Projective Test.  This test is a personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics.  There is also an Thematic test which is an projective test that Makes up stories about ambiguous scenes and it allows people express their inner feelings and interests.  Another test that is often used when assessing your unconscious is the Rorschach Inkblot Test.  This test is the most widely used projective test.  It is a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach.  It was made to seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

Alfred Adler suggested that personality develops in the context of social relationships and depends particularly on the relationship between parents and child.  This was called the Inferiority complex which describes situations in which adults have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority they developed as children. 

Carl Jung emphasized the collective unconscious .  This is the concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.  It is a common set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our relatives, the whole human race, and even nonhuman animal ancestors from the distant past.  He also believed in Archetypes which was the universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience.

Karen Horney sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases.  She suggested that personality develops in the context of social relationships and depends particularly on the relationship between parents and child.

Humanistic Psychology is the approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals

Humanism is when Humanity is positively forward moving.  Humanism is when we are creative and capable of Free Choice.  It is our personality is a product of our choices.  Each person experiences their own reality.  Subjective Experience is Reality as it is perceived and interpreted.


Abraham Maslow supported the Humanistic Perspective.  He studied the self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people.  He believed that the needs were as follows:  Basic Needs included Physiological Safety and Security Love and Belonging Esteem

Growth Needs were to Contribute to personal growth.

Self-Actualization is the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved.  It is known as the motivation to fulfill one’s potential

Maslow’s self actualization was an ongoing process of fully developing potential.

1. Be willing to change ; 2. Take responsibility ; 3. Examine your motives ; 4. Experience honestly and directly ; 5. Make use of positive experiences ; 6. Be prepared to be different ; 7. Get involved ; 8. Get involved

The aspects of the self actualized are Efficient perceptions of reality.  They are also Comfortable acceptance of self, others, and human nature.  These concepts are Spontaneity, Task centered, Autonomy, Continued freshness of appreciation, Fellowship with humanity, Profound interpersonal relationships, Non-hostile sense of humor.  Peak experiences are Temporary moments of ecstasy, harmony, and deep meaning

POST #12

Posted: November 14, 2011 in Uncategorized

This week on my blog I will be talking about personality.  Personality is an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.


There are two perspectives of personality which are the (1) basic and (2) modern perspectives.  In the Basic perspective there are two categories which are psychoanalytic and humanistic.  In the modern perspectives  there is the trait and social cognitive categories.


The Psychoanalytic category in the basic perspective of personality came from Freud’s theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality.  Techniques for treatment include: trying to seek to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Free Association also goes with the psychoanalytic category.  It is a method of exploring the unconscious.  This is when a person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.  Being unconscious is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories.  Contemporary viewpoint is information processing of which we are unaware.


Freud believed that the personality structure includes ego, superego, id, unconscious mind, and conscious mind.


The Id is the reservoir of unconscious psychic energy.  It strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives.  It is also known as the inner child that is within you.  Superego is internalized ideals.  It is also standards for judgment & future aspirations.  This is also where your conscience sets in.  Your Ego is the executive conscious part.  It mediates demands of the id, superego, and reality.  The reality principle satisfies the id’s desires in a realistic way that brings pleasure instead of pain.


Freud’s Psychosexual StagesFocus

When you’re anywhere from 0 to 18 months you have oral pleasures that centers on the mouth—such as  sucking, biting, and chewing.  While 18-36 months old you have anal pleasure that focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control.  When at the ages 3 through 6 your experiencing phallic period.  During this period, the pleasure zone is the genitals and coping with incestuous sexual feelings.  Once at the age 6 up until puberty you are experiencing the Latency period.  You start to feel dormant sexual feelings which are when you start having sexual feelings. Puberty and further on you are at the Genital stage and by this time you will have a maturation of sexual interests.

Defense mechanisms are the ego’s protective methods.  It reduces anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.  Repression is the basic defense of mechanism.  It banishes anxiety – arousing thoughts, feelings, or memories from consciousness.  Regression retreats you to a more infantile stage.  It keeps some psychic energy fixed.  An example of this would be biting your fingernails.  When your ego is unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites this is called reaction formation.  During this, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety – arousing unconscious feelings. 


Projection also goes with defense mechanism.  Projection is the disguise of threatening impulses by attributing them to others.  Transference is a special type of projection where problems are projected onto the therapist.  Displacement shifts impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person.  It also redirects anger toward a safer outlet.  Rationalization is offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.


POST # 9

Posted: October 24, 2011 in Uncategorized

This week on my blog I will telling you 10 fun facts about dreaming

1)    Blind People Dream

People who become blind after birth can see images in their dreams. People who are born blind do not see any images, but have dreams equally vivid involving their other senses of sound, smell, touch and emotion.

2)    You Forget 90% of your Dreams

Within 5 minutes of waking, half of your dream if forgotten. Within 10, 90% is gone.

3)    Everybody Dreams

Every human being dreams unless you suffer from an extreme psychological disorder, but men and women have different dreams and different physical reactions. Men tend to dream more about other men, while women tend to dream equally about men and women. In addition, both men and women experience sexually related physical reactions to their dreams regardless of whether the dream is sexual in nature; males experience erections and females experience increased vaginal blood flow.

4)    Dreams Prevent Psychosis

In a recent sleep study, students who were awakened at the beginning of each dream, but still allowed their 8 hours of sleep, all experienced difficulty in concentration, irritability, hallucinations, and signs of psychosis after only 3 days. When finally allowed their REM sleep the student’s brains made up for lost time by greatly increasing the percentage of sleep spent in the REM stage.

5)    We Only Dream of What We Know

Our dreams are frequently full of strangers who play out certain parts –your mind is not inventing those faces – they are real faces of real people that you have seen during your life but may not know or remember.

6)    Not Everyone Dreams in Color

A full 12% of sighted people dream exclusively in black and white. The remaining number dream in full color. People also tend to have common themes in dreams, which are situations relating to school, being chased, running slowly/in place, sexual experiences, falling, arriving too late, a person now alive being dead, teeth falling out, flying, failing an examination, or a car accident. It is unknown whether the impact of a dream relating to violence or death is more emotionally charged for a person who dreams in color than one who dreams in black and white.

7)    Dreams are not about what they are about

If you dream about some particular subject it is not often that the dream is about that. Dreams speak in a deeply symbolic language. The unconscious mind tries to compare your dream to something else, which is similar. Its like writing a poem and saying that a group of ants were like machines that never stop. But you would never compare something to it. So whatever symbol your dream picks on it is most unlikely to be a symbol for itself.

8)    Quitters have more vivid dreams

People who have smoked cigarettes for a long time who stop, have reported much more vivid dreams than they would normally experience.

9)    External Stimuli Invade our Dreams

This is called Dream Incorporation and it is the experience that most of us have had where a sound from reality is heard in our dream and incorporated in some way. A similar (though less external) example would be when you are physically thirsty and your mind incorporates that feeling in to your dream.

10) You are paralyzed while you sleep

Believe it or not, your body is virtually paralyzed during your sleep – most likely to prevent your body from acting out aspects of your dreams.


Post #8

Posted: October 12, 2011 in Uncategorized

This week on my blog I want to take a break from the regular psychology information and look at some very interesting phobias.  If you are not sure about what a phobia is, then look at the definition below.

Phobia: is a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid it.

Here is a list of the Top Ten Most Common Phobias in the World Today.

1)      Agoraphobia

Fear of open space, but it can also be a fear of crowded places.  It can cause someone to have a panic attack.

2)      Arachnophobia

Fear of spiders.

FUN FACT:  Because of the fact that this phobia is very common, there has been a movie named after it.

3)      Acrophobia

Fear of heights.  Sometimes people with this phobia can’t even ride in a glass fronted elevator or looking out of a window.

4)      Claustrophobia

It’s the opposite of Agoraphobia (Number 1 on the list).  Fear of confined or enclosed spaces.  This is also associated with the fear of not being able to escape from a situation.

Example Areas:  Elevators / Closets / Bathrooms

5)      Aviophobia

Fear of flying

This is usually a mixture of phobias such as not being able to escape, not being in control, etc.

6)      Dental Phobia

Around 15percent of the Western part of the world are afraid of dentists.  This is also a mixture of phobias such as being afraid of needles, drills, and possibly the white coats that the dentists have to wear.

7)      Social Phobia

Fear of some social interaction.  This also goes with the fear of being to speak in front of people and having interview anxiety.

8)      Mysophobia

Fear of germs.

Sometimes known as OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder)

The symptoms can possibly be washing your hands more than once at a time and not paying attention to things that you feel can be cleaner and more organized.

9)      Aquaphobia

Is the fear of water.   It can also be the fear of drowning. 1/50 has this fear of water.

10)   Fear of Commitment

An example of a symptom can be avoiding getting married.

Here are a few uncommon phobias

Ablutophobia is the fear of washing or bathing ;// Alektorophobia is the fear of chickens :// Anthrophobia or Anthophobia is the flowers ;//Aulophobia is the fear of flutes ;// Barophobia is the fear of gravity ;// Bibliophobia is the fear of books ;// Brontophobia is the fear of thunder and lightning ;// Cathisophobia is the fear of sitting ;// Chaetophobia is the fear of hair ;// Chrometophobia or Chrematophobia is the fear of money ;// Deipnophobia is the fear of dinning or hearing dinner conversations ;// Ecclesiophobia is the fear of church ;// Ergophobia is the fear of work ;//Gamophobia is the fear of marriage ;// Hadephobia is the fear of hell ;// Homichlophobia is the fear of  fog ;//Hominophobia is the fear of men ;//  Ithyphallophobia is the fear of seeing or thinking about or having an erect penis ;// kathisophobia is the fear of sitting down


Posted: October 10, 2011 in Uncategorized

Okay this week I am going to continue talking about Cognitive Psychology.  Lat week we left off by talking about Overconfidence.  If you don’t remember the information you can simply look on Post Number Six [6].  This week we’re starting from the topic Decision Making.

Framing is apart of decision making.  Framing is the way an issue is posed.  Like how ab issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements. 

For example: 

  • What is the best way to market ground beef–as 25% fat or 75% lean? Or
  • Those who pass come to class or those who are absent fail

Judgment Formation contains two main contents.  One being Belief Bias which is the tendency for someones preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning.  Sometimes when you make minvalid jconclusions it seems valid or some valid conclusions may seem invalid.  Another content of Judgment Formation is Belief Perseverance.  This is clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

Language is our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning.  Phoneme is in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.


  • Bat- has three phonemes b * a * t
  • Chat- has three phonemes ch * a * t

Everyone was born to recpgnize speech sounds from all languages.  93 percent of babies between the ages of 6-8 months can hear the “T’s” in the Hindi language.  Only 68 percent of 8-10 month year olds can hear the “T’s” in the Hindi language.  20 percent of 10-12 month babies hear the “T’s” in the Hindi language and only about 10 percent of english speaking adults can hear it.

In language sturture the is a small unit that carries a meaning.  It may be a word or part of a word.  This is called Morpheme

Some Example are: 

  • Milk=milk
  • Pumpkin= pump . kin
  • Unforgettable= un . for . get . table

When structuring Language Facts:

  • Phonememes are basic sounds
  • Morphemes are the smallest meaningfkul units
  • Words are meaningful units
  • Phrases are composed of two or more words
  • Sentences are composed of many words

Grammer is also a big part of LanguageGrammer is a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others.  Grammer is broken up into two parts; Sematics and SyntaxSematics is the set of rules by which we drive meaning from words, and sentences in a given language.  The Sematic rule bamsically tells us that adding [ed] to the word [laugh] meand that it happened in the past.  Syntax is the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.  In Englsih, adjectives come before nouns.    In Spanish, nouns come before adjectives.

Quiz Yourself:  In English, it is appropriate to refer to “a pretty bird,” but not to “a bird pretty.”  This best illustrates the importance of:

A) syntax

B) semantics

C) morphemes

D) phonemes

The correct answer is [A]

See you next week 🙂